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Measurement of Self-Management Support

ACIC (Assessment of Chronic Illness Care)
Although the ACIC was developed as a practical tool to help teams improve care for chronic illness, it has also been implemented for research purposes (Wagner et al., 2001; Bonomi et al., 2002; Glasgow et al., 2001). Preliminary data indicate the ACIC is responsive to changes teams make in their systems and correlates well with other measures of productivity and system change. In fact, all six ACIC sub-scale scores increased significantly from baseline to follow-up for diabetes and congestive heart failure teams enrolled in a 14-month quality improvement collaborative (Wagner et al., 2001).

PACIC (Patient Assessment of Care for Chronic Conditions)
The Patient Assessment of Care for Chronic Conditions (PACIC) measures specific actions or qualities of care, congruent with the CCM, that patients report they have experienced in the delivery system. The survey includes 20 items, and should be sufficiently brief to use in many settings. When paired with the ACIC, these tools can provide complementary consumer and provider assessments of important aspects of care for chronic illness patients. The results of our validation study of the PACIC were published in 2005.

The Assessment of Primary Care Resources and Supports for Chronic Disease Self-Management (PCRS)
The Assessment of Primary Care Resources and Supports for Chronic Disease Self-Management (PCRS) tool assesses both organizational infrastructure and delivery of self-management support services. Initial experience suggests that the PCRS is a user-friendly self-assessment tool that primary care teams can use to assess their current capacity to support and implement consistent patient-centered self management. The website was developed by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Diabetes Initiative. Guests are able to use the tool.

PAM (Patient Activation Measure)
The PAM was developed to assess an individual's knowledge, skill and confidence for self-management. With the ability to measure activation and uncover related insights into consumer self-management abilities, care support and education can be more effectively tailored to help individuals become better self managers.

Outcome Measures for Health Education and Other Health Care Interventions
Lorig, K., Stewart, A., Ritter, P., Gonzalez, V., Laurent, D., & Lynch, D. (1996). Outcome measures for health education and other health care interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Contains a collection of outcome measures with strong psychometric properties that can be used by practitioners and researchers to evaluate a variety of intervention studies and has an emphasis on health education interventions.

Stanford Patient Education Research Centre
Research Instruments Developed, Adapted or Used by the Stanford Patient Education Research Center
These scales are downloadable and are available to use in your own research, at no cost, thanks to funding from the US National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR).